Individual surnames originated for the purpose of more specific identification. The four primary sources for second names were: occupation, location, father's name, or personal characteristics. Research relating to the origin of names, whether family names or place names, always involves some speculation. Many individuals in Britain, before the use of surnames, are known by multiple names, generally Celtic, Latin, and possibly Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, Anglicized or Norse versions. Likewise for place names. Much of what we see in Scotland can be traced back to Celtic names, before Latin, Saxon or even Norse names were added to what was already known through Celtic derivation.
Covered here, will be family and place names derivations, to the best that scholars have been able to put together thus far.